BRADFORD CATHEDRAL WINDOWS
Wherever you are in the building, light is a focal point, and so this tour of our windowst takes you on a journey into light, stopping along the way to reveal some of the hidden treasures of our windows.
The tour follows a clockwise route round the Cathedral:
(at the back of the Church, under the Tower)
(north west wall, beside North Door)
East End – Lady Chapel
South Transept and Listening Room
When you stand beside the Welcome Desk in the central crossing, you may notice that the Cathedral windows have a variety of effects – they colour the light inside the building, they cut out distractions, they teach, they add beauty. If you look toward the South Door, beyond the Welcome Desk, you will see how the plain glass looks out on to a screen of trees which become a living design.
At different times of day and season, the quality and angle of the light striking the windows creates new highlights. Even the windows of the North Wall sometimes catch the sun light. And so, if you were able to sit and watch or take a series of photographs throughout a long period of time, you would find that the building is constantly changing because of the movement of light. Stone and wood it may be, but it comes alive with light. Reflective surfaces magnify the effect, colours change, new corners are illuminated. Even the old flagstones and the polished wooden floor become moving mosaics of colour and light.
In darkness, another beautiful effect occurs when the clerestory windows and West window are illuminated from within and the tracery is outlined with gold light, or candlelight reflects on polished marble and lights up corners of old stone.
Light is one of the chief symbols of the Christian faith, reminding us of Jesus, who said ‘I am the Light of the World’. In the beauty of the Cathedral, we find new ways of understanding the significance of his statement and its interplay with all the moods and seasons of our own lives.
The West Window
The Catherine and Jane Wells Memorial Window 1864
Some records show that this window was inserted in 1863 and is the work of Heaton Butler. which became Heaton, Butler and Bayne. The text on the window is partly obscured.
The window depicts the theme of Women of the Bible, and was placed here by a Bradford solicitor whose name was ‘Wells’ in memory of his sisters. The main window is divided into five pictures taken from the New Testament – four ‘quarters’ of the window and one central. Above the main window are two rows of small individual figures from Old and New Testaments. The four main quarters are:
Top left: The Angel Gabriel greets the Virgin Mary: ‘Fear not Mary for thou hast found favour with God.’ (Luke 1:30). Mary is overshadowed by the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove. There are three Madonna lilies: one in a Pot marked M, one held by Gabriel, one held by Mary.
Top Right: Mary Magdalene is greeted by the Risen Christ.
The women weep in the background, but Mary seeing Jesus, believes him to be the gardener, and asks where he has taken the body. Jesus greets her by name and says: ‘Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my Father. (John 20:17)
Lower left: Jesus with the sisters, Mary and Martha of Bethany. Martha serves, Mary sits and listens. Martha complains, but Jesus says: ‘Mary has chosen that good part that shall not be taken away from her’ (Luke 10:42)
Lower right: Jesus speaks with the Woman at the Well.
Ostracised because of her past, the woman goes to draw water at the hottest time of day and finds Jesus who takes the unprecedented step of talking to her. With her hand on the well rope, and with foliage around her feet where the water has splashed, she listens as he offers: ‘Whosoever shall drink of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst.’(John 4:14)
Centre: The angels tell the women the news that Jesus is risen, on Easter morning. (23,24). Between the vivid feathers of the angels wings, the morning star can be seen – a symbol of the Risen Christ. They say to the women: ‘He is not here, He is risen.’ (Matthew 28:5)
West Window Top row:
Symbol for Alpha
Lily leaves, acorns
Elisabeth with scroll, John red, green, purple
Virgin Mary with lily red, white, gold
Mary of Bethany with jar red and purple
Martha with cap, plate, keys bronze, blue, red
Lily leaves, acorns
Symbol for Omega
Eve, naked, with cloak Maroon Sarah, elderly, with stick Red, blue, green
Miriam with musical instrument Red, brown, white
Hannah with clasped hands Brown, blue, white
Ruth, back view, carrying brown bag Red, white, pink
Naomi with white cloth Red, green, gold
Esther with scroll, crown Red, gold, ermine
Joanna in prayer Red, green, blue, white
Anna in prayer Red, gold, turquoise
Dorcas with tray, loaves, capPink, white, green
The Kitchen Window
If the kitchen is open, it might be possible to see a stained glass window showing the healing of the blind men, created by Heaton, Butler and Bayne for St Andrew’s Church, Listerhills, and reset in the north wall of the kitchen when that church was closed.
Leave the Tower area, passing between two alabaster memorials: the World War 1 memorial, and the Vicars of Bradford memorial. At the top of the WW1 memorial is a bronze of St George, designed by Bradford-born artist Ernest Sichel, 1862-1941, who also designed the embroidered altar frontal of the Good Shepherd, in the Lady Chapel.
Go to the window beside the North Porch, the World War 1 Memorial window.
MEMORIAL WINDOW TO
THE 6th BATTALION WEST YORKSHIRE REGIMENT
Window created by Archibald J. Davis, Bromsgrove 1921
This description is supplied by the Bromsgrove Guild, Birmingham.
In the centre is a figure of an Infantryman lying mortally wounded amidst the desolation of the battlefield. He lies with gas mask, at the alert, and clasping his rifle. Near him is his steel helmet and around him are barbed wire entanglements. In the distance is a ruined Church, shell-torn trees and the setting sun. As the day closes, he looks up and sees Christ who made the Great Sacrifice: ‘Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friend.’
Below the soldier between two graves is the Badge of the Battalion. On the left is a soldier’s grave behind the Line, upon which his comrades have placed a cross and a wreath. On the other side is a battlefield grave; the soldier has been buried in action and his comrades, with haste, yet with reverence, have placed his rifle and helmet to mark the spot. Behind the graves are poppies, the symbol of death. In front are the White Roses of York.
Around the side lights is the History of the Battalion. At the bottom of the left-hand light are the Arms of Bradford. In the first illustration is shown the landing of Troops in France by night. In a corner is a shield showing a fleur de lys, also the Badge of the Battalion Scouts. Above these we see Ypres. The ruin of the Cloth Hall is shown as it was in 1915. Near this is a soldier in fur coat and gumboots - he is on guard and is wearing the gas mask of that period on his forehead. In front of him is the gas flag showing the wind ‘at danger.’ Opposite him are the Arms of Ypres. Next is shown the Leipzig Redoubt - a typical German strong point. Above is shown the storming and capture of Thiepval. Near here is a small medallion, the first of a series, showing the specialists of the Battalion. This one shows the Bombers. In the border a ‘stokes’ and a 50-pounder Trench Mortar represent the work of the Trench Mortar men. Next is shown Nieuport and a Torpedo Boat Destroyer representing the Royal Navy who were the ‘left flank’ of our line. In the border above is shown a spade and trowel representing the Pioneers. Next is shown Passchendaele Ridge - a barrage of fire and smoke and a German Pill Box in action. A little scene shows the work of the Stretcher Bearers. Above this the 49th Divisional Mark is surrounded by a Laurel Wreath.
At the extreme top of the window, aeroplanes represent the Air Force. In the top of the right-hand light is an observation balloon, and surrounded by a laurel wreath is the ‘mark’ of the 62nd Division. Below is Bullecourt, the Battalion holding the Line. In the border is a pack mule as a tribute to the work of the Horses and Mules of the Transport.
The next panel indicates the Battle of Cambrai - the Tanks advancing through the smoke barrage. Near this are the Arms of Cambrai. Then Kemmel Hill - the hill is shown with the burning windmills on the top, and near this is a medallion showing the Signallers at work. Next is shown Iwuy and above is a captured German gun. Below in the border is a scroll with the word ‘FAMARS.’ Above this is the badge of the First Battalion of the West Yorkshire Regiment and the trumpet and drums, together with the words of their march, ‘Ça Ira.’ Then is shown the final advance through Valenciennes, together with the Arms of that town.
At the base of the window is seen the Bridge of Boats on the Rhine with Cologne in the distance. Near here at the end of the Dedication Scroll is shown the Arms of the See of Bradford.
In the top two centre lights of the tracery are St. Michael of Belgium and St George of England. Below there are the shields of Britain, America, Belgium, Japan, Russia and Portugal. On the left-hand light is shown St. Louis the Soldier Saint and King of France, and below the Shield of France. On the extreme left is shown St. Ambrose of Italy and the National Shield. On the right is shown St. Sava of Serbia and the Serbian Shield, and in the extreme right is shown St. Methodius of Romania and the Romanian Shield. These symbolize all the nations who fought with us.
Quick Guide, left panel
Top lights Aeroplanes, Tudor rose within laurel wreath 49th Division
Left border Stretcher bearers in front of red cross on white field
Centre Scene on battlefield ‘Passchendaele’ October 1917
Right border:Spade in trench
Left. border Ship riding waves ‘left flank’
Centre Two machine gunners at Lake Nieuport July 1917
Right border German grenade
L.eft border Soldier throwing grenade ‘bombers’
Centre scene of town on fire Thiepval 1916
Right border Scene of trenches ‘Leipzig redoubt’
Left.border: Shield of arms of Ypres.
Centre Town on fire, being bombed.Cathedral on right. Ypres. 1915,16,17.
Right.border Infantryman holding white flag.
Left border Shield
Centre Blue sky with stars – on left a troopship; on right 5 soldiers landing at night. ‘Landed in France 15 April 1915.
Right border City of Bradford arms. Borders-scenes alternate with sprays of the white rose of York.
Jesus on Cross. ‘Greater love hath no man that this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.’ (John 15:13)
Soldier Khaki uniform of West Yorkshire Regiment.
Identity disc, rifle, canvas bag.
Tree, support ropes, church, grave with headstone cross and laurel wreath/poppies.
Battlefield Rifle, grave with upright rifle and helmet.
Regimental badge of Prince of Wales Own West Yorkshire Regiment.
Right hand panel
Top Shellburst, Balloon, Pelican in wreath
(There are other tiny pelicans in these windows – a Christian symbol of self-sacrifice. Also around the Cathedral are other pelicans – on the Bishop’s Throne, the Dean’s Stall, in the Holy Spirit Chapel, and on the Font)
Left border Sprays of the white rose of York
Centre Battlefield Belle Court May 1917
Right border Flag. Pack mule. ‘Transport’
Left border Yorkshire roses
Centre Tanks - Cambrai November 1917.
(First major tank battle in history).
Right border Arms of Cambrai
Left border Fieldgun Iway. October 1918.
Centre Windmills on fire. Kemmel Hill April 1918.
Right border Two soldiers with wireless. ‘Signallers’.
Left border Trumpets and drums above a white horse; ‘Famars’.
Centre Town on fire, shells bursting. ‘Valenciennes Nov.1918’
Right border Arms of Valenciennes.
Left border Arms of Diocese of Bradford (formed 1919)
Centre Town on Rhine with Cathedral – Cologne.
‘Reached Rhine February 1919’.
Right border Yorkshire roses.
Information: A.J.Davies 1921 Bromsgrove.
NORTH AISLE WINDOWS
Lambert and Keeling Memorial Windows, both by the same designer, James Powell & Sons Ltd. The Lambert window was inserted in c.1912 and the Keeling window in1909.
Lambert Memorial Window (immediate right of North Porch)
This is on the theme of teaching, in memory of Hannah Lambert, teacher.
Left panel: Phebe (deaconess) and child (Romans 16:1).
Centre panel: Jesus with Martha and Mary (Luke 10:38-42).
Right panel: Lois with grandson Timothy (2 Timothy 1:5)
Note kneeling angel carved on wooden lectern beside child Timothy.
Keeling Memorial Window (far right of North Porch)
This window portrays three women whose name begins with M, shown faintly in the background around each figure.
Left panel: St Margaret of Scotland (with cross).
Descendant of the exiled Saxon royal family, and married to Malcolm III of Scotland, she was a woman of prayer, involved with the renewal and reform of the church in Scotland. She built Dunfermline Abbey and revived Iona Abbey. She was noted for her inexhaustible ministry to the poor and her service to Scotland. Of her it was written that ‘Christ truly dwells in her heart.’ She died in 1093. Her day is 16 November.
Centre panel: Virgin Mary and Child.
Note the delicate flower decorations on Mary’s robe, and in the background, some of which are symbolic of her, such as the lily, the rose, and the lily of the valley.
Right panel: St Monica. Died 388. Mother of St. Augustine of Hippo, of whose life-style she despaired until he was 29. Monica persistently reasoned with him and prayed for him. A bishop once encouraged her saying ‘Go on praying; it cannot be that the child of so many prayers should perish’. Augustine finally went to Rome and met St Ambrose. He was converted and his mother witnessed his baptism at Easter 387. Her day is 4 May. Augustine’s day is 5 May.
West wall: Martyrs Window
Designed and made by William Morris & Co. 1864
Originally inserted in the south wall at the eastern end of what is now the South Ambulatory, in 1864. This was part of a much larger window of martyrs and angels surrounding Christ. The rest of the glass is now in the North Ambulatory illuminated window, and the other four martyrs are in the west wall of the South Transept. The old window was dismantled for Sir Edward Maufe’s 1960’s design, refurbished in 1991 by York Glaziers Trust and re-positioned in 1992. The martyrs hold personal symbols and a palm branch which is a symbol of martyrdom.
From Left to Right:
St Jude St Cyprian St Alban
Book Staff In Episcopal dress Sword
William Morris Edw Burne-Jones William Morris Edw Burne-Jones
St Barnabas 1st Century
Barnabas was an apostle, and a Jewish Cypriot and Levite. His name means ‘son of consolation’. He was not one of the twelve disciples. He brought Paul to the other apostles and shared Paul’s first missionary journey. However, Barnabas and Paul later quarrelled and separated. Barnabas’ own mission took him to Cyprus. Legend tells that he was martyred at Salamis in 61 AD. His day is 11 June.
St Jude 1st Century
Jude was an apostle and martyr. He is identified with Thaddaeus. Jude, the brother of James, was called ‘one of the brethren of the Lord’. He is the author of the epistle of Jude. Tradition says that he joined with Simon in preaching in Persia, where both were martyred. He is often shown with a club – the instrument of his death. He sometimes is shown holding a ship, alongside Simon, holding a fish. He was a cousin of Zebedee and his trade was probably fishing. His day, jointly with Simon, is 28 October, or singly, 19 June.
St Cyprian 200-258
Cyprian was Bishop of Carthage, and a martyr. Before his conversion, he was an orator, teacher, and court advocate. After becoming a Christian, he became a priest, and later, bishop. He fell under the Decian persecution, having always advocated compassion, obedience and loyalty, especially in the treatment of the ‘lapsed’, his treatment of these people being approved by the Council of Carthage in 251. Valerian required bishops, priests and deacons to take part in pagan worship, so he was exiled in 257 and executed in 258. He was noted for his sermons and writing. He is sometimes confused with Cyprian of Antioch. He died on 14 September.
St Alban 3rd Century
Alban was a soldier and the first known British martyr, linking the Church in Britain with the late Roman Empire. His martyrdom is given by Bede and Gildas as having been during the Diocletian persecution c.305, but it is thought that it could have been that of Decius, 254, or even earlier, under Septimius Severus, c.209. Alban is said to have sheltered a Christian priest, fleeing from persecution. He was converted and baptised by the priest, and Alban disguised himself as the priest in order that the man could escape. Alban was arrested, and refused to offer sacrifice and so he was condemned to death. The first executioner was converted, and he was beheaded by a second executioner. He was buried near his town of Verulamium, and the town grew around his shrine, being known as St Alban’s. His day is 20 June.
North wall: Saints of Northern Britain
These are the Rhodes and Parkinson Memorial windows, both by Shrigley & Hunt, inserted 1898, when the transepts were added to the then Parish Church.
Left hand window
Angels in tracery at top of windows with musical instruments:
2. Viol (treble)
3. Chalmeau (oboe)
5. Dulcimer (knee zither)
8. Rebec or violin (3 strings)
KING EDWIN (585- 633)shown with sceptre and orb
Edwin was King of Northumbria. He married the Christian Princess Ethelburga of Kent. For two years, he pondered the Christian Faith. To him was told the beautiful imagery of the flight of a sparrow under the roof space of a lighted Saxon feasting hall. This was symbolic of the journey of a man through this world, between the two great unknown darknesses before and after our earthly life. Finally, there was an assassination attempt in which his friend Lilla shielded him with his own body. On the same day, his daughter was born. He decided to become Christian, and was baptised by Bishop Paulinus on Easter Eve, 12 April 627 at York, where the Minster now stands. He was killed by the pagan king Penda near Doncaster. His day is 12 October.
ALCUIN 735-804 shown with book and pupil
A monk and scholar of York, he became Master of the Palace School of Charles the Great at the Court of Aachen. He wrote extensively and among his many interests were science and natural history, theology, liturgy, literature and history. His scholarship was a major two-way link between the development of Christianity in the British Isles and in Europe. While in Tours, Alcuin arranged for some of his pupils to go to York to bring some of the rarer works that he had collected there back to Tours. He wrote:- I say this that you may agree to send some of our boys to get everything we need from there and bring the flowers of Britain back to France that as well as the walled garden in York there may be off-shoots of paradise bearing fruit in Tours.
THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL shown with armour, sword, lance
In the East, Michael was invoked for the care of the sick: Constantine built a church in his honour near Constantinople; hot springs were also dedicated to him in Greece and Asia Minor. The feast of 29 September commemorates the dedication of his basilica on the Salarian Way near Rome. From early times his cult was strong in the British Isles. A cemetery-oratory near Hexham was mentioned by Bede. According to Eddius' Life, Wilfrid had a vision of Michael shortly before his death. Many high places were associated with him, one of the most spectacular being the Great Skellig (Skellig Michael, Co. Kerry), while St. Michael's Mount (Cornwall) was believed to commemorate a vision there in the 8th century. However, in Saxon times, a church dedicated to St Michael was built at Linton, in Wharfedale, at a bend in the river symbolising a serpent, so that Michael was seen to be defeating the powers of darkness with the strength of the Risen Christ.
CUTHBERT died 687, shown carrying King Oswald’s head, and crosier carved with lamb’s head, and wearing mitre and abbot’s robes.
Cuthbert, a shepherd boy in the Lammermuir Hills, saw a great light in the sky over the coast, and angels carrying a shining soul to Heaven. He went to Melrose monastery and offered himself as a monk. The vision which began his vocation was of the death of Aidan. He went on to serve in Ripon, Hexham and Lindisfarne, and there created a hermitage in the remote Farne Islands. Bede said of Cuthbert: ‘Above all he was afire with heavenly love, unassumingly patient, devoted to unceasing prayer, and kindly helping all who came to him for comfort. He regarded the labour of help as equivalent to prayer’. This Celtic monk accepted the Roman tradition at the Synod of Whitby, and his wise bearing had lasting influence on the English Church.
His day: 20 March.
Right Hand Window
1. Shofar (ram’s horn)
6 – 9: Unknown
shown wearing monk’s habit, cowl, belt and pouch, with bare feet and sandals, carrying Celtic crook in Abbot’s position as Abbot of Iona.
Columba was born in Donegal. His mother dreamed an angel gave her a cloak woven with creation’s colours which spread over Ireland to Scotland. Because of a deadly quarrel, he took voluntary exile on Iona, where he founded a monastery, copying Gospels, and carrying out missionary journeys. Adamnan described him as ‘having the face of an angel, polished in speech, sanctified in work, most excellent in disposition, great in counsel, for 34 years an island soldier. He was incessantly occupied day and night, loving to all, always cheerful and holy and gladdened with the joy of the Holy Spirit. His day: 9 June.
AIDAN died 651.
Shown wearing mitre and chasuble and carrying bishop’s crosier and book. Text below window: ‘If thy love, O my Saviour, is offered to this people, many hearts will be touched. I will go and make thee known’
Aidan was an Irish Scot and monk of Iona, who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in the time of King Oswald, his interpreter and companion. The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, cut off by the tides twice a day, became a monastic retreat, a great place of learning, and a missionary base for work in Northumbria. Aidan, gentle bishop of the isles, was a man of wisdom and grace. He died in 651 at Bamburgh. The Cathedral’s Chapel of St Aidan is now situated off the North Ambulatory, but was originally in this North Transept. His day: 31 August.
BEDE 673-735. Shown with tonsure; amice; writing in open book.
At age 7, Bede entered the Benedictine monastery of Wearmouth and Jarrow. Ordained by John of Beverley, this monk and priest became a great scholar who has come to be known as the Father of English History. He wrote over 40 works, including ‘A History of the English Church and People’, describing the development of Christian culture in England, and the organisation of the Church into dioceses. He became one of Europe’s most learned men, deriving his knowledge from Benedict Biscop’s great monastery library, and, in his own words, from ‘Noble Jesu, Fount of all Wisdom’. He is buried in Durham Cathedral. Day: 25 May.
in archiepiscopal vestments; with ring and jewelled cross.
A royal Northumbrian, educated at Lindisfarne Wilfrid founded monasteries at Ripon, Stamford, Oundle, Hexham and Selsey. An ambitious and clever man who loved pomp and pageantry, he successfully championed Roman usage at the Synod of Whitby 644. At 30 he became the controversial Bishop of York. However, he was a great builder, he loved learning, and he brought the riches of church music and ceremonial to the English Church. He had an over view of the struggling English church as part of something much greater.
His day: 12 Oct.
This was the central figure in the William Morris Window which originally was inserted in the south wall at the eastern end of what is now the South Ambulatory, but was then part of the old Chancel. The original South Chancel window, from 1864, has been re-sited in three locations: the west walls of the transepts, and the illuminated window in the North Ambulatory. This was originally a perpendicular window of five cinquefoil-headed lights beneath three tiers of tracery.
The central figure of this window, Salvatore Mundi, is by architect Albert Moore. The angels in this window, some playing harps and dulcimers, others holding palms, wreaths and chaplets, were originally fitted into the tracery at the top of the old window, and were designed by William Morris. The Pelican feeding young, was designed by Philip Webb. The glass was refurbished in 1991 by York Glaziers Trust and repositioned in 1992, as a memorial to historian and archivist, Mary Lister.
THE LADY CHAPEL
The East Window
Designed and made by Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., and inserted in the old chancel in 1863 as one complete window, it was refitted by Messrs. Pickett of Leeds for Sir Edward Maufe’s new extension in the early 1960’s.
The glass of the East Window was originally installed as a single seven-light window in Bradford Parish Church in 1863, which in itself replaced an eight-light window inserted in 1671. It was again re-ordered, during the building of the Cathedral extensions 1958-63, this time as three separate windows, a feat involving 30,000 pieces of glass. The glass was originally designed specially for Bradford by William Morris (WM), and his colleagues, Ford Madox Brown (FMB), Edward Burne-Jones (EBJ), Dante Gabriel Rossetti (DGR), Peter Marshall (PPM) and Philip Webb (PW), and was one of their earliest glass commissions
These windows may be read in levels from Left to Right, from bottom to top, along with identifying symbols as follows:
Lowest Tier: Prophets
Moses Tablets of stone marked 1-X; 2 horns PPM
Isaiah Scroll: ‘unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given’ WM
JeremiahScroll ‘Thou wilt return Israel’ WM
Ezekiel Prayer and hood DGR
Daniel Mene mene tekel upharsim (Daniel 5:25-28) DGR
Elijah Raven and bread WM
Second tier: Patriarchs
Abraham Knife and small son, Isaac FMB
Old Isaac Blessing and wooden vessel FMB
Jaco Pan and smoke, pouch DGR
David Crown, chain mail, no shoes, dove, harp EBJ
SolomonCrown, blessing and sceptre PPM
Joseph of Nazareth Bare feet, staff, cloa WM
Third Tier: Evangelists
John the Baptist WM
Matthew Winged man, blessing Mark Winged lion and book, scroll EBJ
Luke Winged ox WM
John Eagle FMB
Paul Scroll and seal , broad sword FMB
Top Tier: Women
Anna the Prophetess Stars PPM
Elisabeth and son
John the Baptist Stick and cross, berries and leaves FMB
Virgin Mary Book, Madonna lily, long fair hair, halo EBJ
Mary Magdalene Long hair, jar of spikenard DGR
Martha Copper pan, wooden spoon and leather bottle DGR
Mary of Bethany Long fair hair, book, spray of leaves WM
Centre Panels from top):
Christ in Majesty DGR
St Peter PPM
Agnus Dei Lamb of God PW
Dove descending PW
Seraph arms folded WM
Seraph hands up WM
Angel with scroll ?EBJ
Minstrel angel with T shaped dulcimer WM
Minstrel Angel singing from scroll WM
Seraph arms folded WM
Seraph hands up WM
Archagnel Michael WM
Archangel Raphael WM
Minstrel angel with T shaped dulcimer ?WM
Minstrel angel with double pipe WM
Archangel Uriel WM
Archangel Gabriel WM
Pattern work PW
Records show that the first draft of the figure of Mary Magdalene was returned by the Parish Church authorities as being ‘unsuitably clothed’. A second design was deemed more appropriate.
Previously known as the Bolling Chapel
The Mitchell Memorial window was inserted in 1911 or1912. Thought to be created by A K Nicholson, it is the partner of the window in the Listening Room (South East Porch).
ELIZABETH OF HUNGARY 1207-1231, a princess of Hungary. After being widowed young, she was driven from court. She became an early Franciscan, caring for the sick and poor, but was persecuted. The story of the window is that she was miraculously saved from death. On being accused of carrying forbidden bread from the castle to the poor, she opened her cloak to reveal not bread, but roses. She lived a life of obedience to God in her love for those in need. She died at the age of 24. Her day: 17 November.
HILDA OF WHITBY (614-680). Brought up at the Northumbrian royal court and baptised by Paulinus with her uncle King Edwin, Easter Eve 627 at York. At 33 she entered religious life. As Abbess of Hartlepool, she was taught by Aidan. She founded a double monastery at Whitby, which became a famous and holy centre of learning and wisdom, from which 5 bishops came and where Caedmon received his miraculous gift of poetry. She was one of the principal Celtic champions at the Synod of Whitby in 664, but accepted the ruling of the Synod in favour of Roman practice. In her last six years, she battled with disease with patience and courage. Her day: 17 November.
ETHELBURGA, a Christian princess of Kent, married King Edwin of Northumbria in 625. Her prayers and loving Christian witness must have played a large part in her husband’s acceptance of the Christian faith. She received letters and the gifts of a silver mirror and a gold and ivory comb from Pope Boniface, who referred to Ethelburga as a ‘shining example’ because of her gentle persistence and glowing faith. In her household, the young Hilda was also brought up. The influence of her faith and her personality had far-reaching effects in the North of England.
Her day is 8 September.
THE LISTENING ROOM
Like its partner in the South Ambulatory, it is thought that this window was created by A K Nicholson and was inserted as a Mitchell Memorial in 1912 or 1913, although there has sometimes been debate as to whether this could be work by Robert Anning Bell. This window depicts the four patron saints of the British Isles – Patrick, George, Andrew and David, with a wealth of detail to explore.
St Patrick 390-461
Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, was probably born in the west of Britain. His father and grandfather had been deacons in the church of Roman Britain. In a raid when he was 15, Patrick was taken to Ireland and for 6 years he was a swineherd and slave in Armagh. He gave his life to God and after seven years escaped to his home. However, he persistently dreamed of the Irish people calling him, so he returned as a missionary preacher, having studied in Gaul and become a priest. When he went back to Ireland it was as a bishop, and he battled with kings, wizards and druids as he preached the Gospel. He composed the hymn known as ‘The Deer’s Cry’ (St Patrick’s Breastplate: ‘Christ protect me today against every poison, against burning, against drowning, against death wound... Christ with me, Christ before me, Christ behind me.’ He was one of God’s mighty warriors and gentle servants. Legend says that he expelled all the snakes from Ireland, but this could well be a symbol of evil. His day is 17 March. The window is decoarated round the borders with Irish harps, crowns and shamrocks. In the main panel, Patrick is dressed in episcopal robes and is standing on a snake. In the top panel Patrick is seen baptising the daughters of Laioghaire, an Irish King. The shield shows the cross of St Patrick – a red X shaped cross on a white ground.
St George died 303
George is said to have been born of a noble Cappadocian family at Lydda in Palestine. He is known for his knightly courtesy and his tremendous courage. It is believed that he was a soldier who lived during the time of the Diocletian persecution of Christians. He left the army to champion the rights of the Christians, and gave away his possessions and freed his slaves, so that he could live simply. In pleading the Christian cause, he himself was seen to be a Christian. He was ordered to sacrifice, refused to betray Christ, was tortured and beheaded. Known in England since at least the time of Bede, George became popular here during the Crusades as the protector of soldiers and sailors. He is the patron saint of England. He reputedly slew a dragon, symbol of evil preying on the innocent and defenceless. His day is 23 April. The window is bordered by crowns, red and white roses and leaves. George is shown in armour with a banner. The top panel is the legendary slaying of the dragon whilst a captive girl looks on. The shield has the red cross of St George on a white ground.
St Andrew (1st century)
Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter whom he brought to Jesus. Both were fishermen who left their nets immediately when Jesus called them. It was Andrew who told Jesus about the boy with the loaves and fishes at the feeding of the 5000. He was martyred for his faith by crucifixion on an X shaped cross. Tradition links Andrew with Greece, and legend tells that he preached to people for two days before he died at Patras in Achaia. He is the patron saint of Scotland. His link appears to be that his relics were brought to where St Andrews now stands, and which was a great centre of mission and pilgrimage. His day is 30 November. The window is bounded by crowns, thistles and leaves. Andrew is shown holding an X shaped cross. In the top panel he is being prepared for crucifixion. The shield shows the Scottish white X on a blue ground.
St David died 601
David, or Dewi, is the patron saint of Wales. He is known to have presided at two Welsh Synods, founded monasteries, and have been consecrated Bishop of Menevia (now St David’s, Dyfed), where his monastery was. This was an austere, reformed foundation based on the life of the early Egyptian monks. His powerful preaching was notable, especially at the Synod of Brevi, and he is said to have been able to preach to a vast crowd when other preachers could not be heard, perfectly audible to everyone, and with a white dove perched on his shoulder. This is how he is depicted in Bradford Cathedral, listening to the wisdom of the dove, the symbolic form of the Holy Spirit. He was a good teacher and a faithful pastor. His emblem is the leek and his day is 1 March. The window has Welsh harps, daffodils and leeks in the borders. David is wearing his episcopal robes. In the top panel he is shown preaching in the open air. The shield shows the Welsh Dragon.
The Peace Chapel was set up as such in March 2003 in response to the need for prayer for the international situation, particularly in Iraq. Since then it has been much used, both by individuals and groups of people in silent vigil and prayer for peace. The Peace Chapel now remains as a focus for prayer for the peace of the world.
The Epiphany window
Created by Tower & Co. and inserted in 1924 as the Helena Frances Perowne Memorial window for the wife of the first Bishop of Bradford.
This window shows the visit of the three Wise Men to the Christ Child, opening their gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. The Child sits on his Mother Mary’s knee. Behind them stands Joseph, with staff and lantern, and in the background there is a camel-driver with camel. In the bottom left hand corner is the Tower trade-mark superimposed on the Kempe wheat sheaf.
The Crucifixion Window
Created by Kempe & Co., and inserted c.1900 for a Memorial to Sir John Cass, died 18 May 1898, aged 65.
This window unfolds the whole story of the Crucifixion. Christ is central, and surrounded by a crowd of people including his Mother and John, the beloved disciple (to the left hand side), Mary Magdalene, (central), and onlookers and jeerers to the right. The Roman Centurion is shown making his remarkable statement: ‘Truly this man was the Son of God’; whilst in the right hand corner, others game for his clothes, regardless. Symbols of the crucifixion story are above and below the main picture. Kempe’s wheat sheaf trademark can be seen in the bottom left corner.
The Resurrection window
Created by Kempe & Co, and inserted c.1906 as the Herbert William Maude Memorial window. Maude died 3 Aug 1896, aged 21.
The Resurrection window shows three women arriving at the tomb at daybreak, to be told by angels that he is no longer there; he has risen from the dead. In the back ground can be seen a fence with a small open gate, and footprints leading through it, to Jerusalem beyond.
Again, the Kempe trademark can be seen.
Charles Eamer Kempe
Charles Kemp was responsible for two of the tree main windows in the South Transept. The other, the Epiphany window, was made by a relation, Walter Ernest Tower. Kemp was born the fifth son of wealthy parents and educated at Pembroke College, Oxford. He was a deeply religious man, but a serious speech defect ruled out his ambition to enter the Church. He studied under the neo-Gothic architect G F Bodley and became a pupil with the firm of Clayton & Bell. His use of blue, green and ruby glass and large areas of silver staining and delicate and detailed painting of figures are the hallmarks of his style. By the end of the nineteenth century he employed 50 people and completed over 3000 commissions here and abroad, especially in the USA. He uses the wheat sheaf symbol as his trademark, taken from his family’s coat of arms. He died suddenly in 1907 and left the company to his relation, Walter Ernest Tower, who with four of Kempe’s colleagues continued it as a limited company using the wheat sheaf symbol with tower superimposed.
(From: Stained and Decorative Glass by Elizabeth Morris, published 1990)
The west wall: Martyrs’ windows
St Stephen 1st Century shown with stones Designer: EBJ
Stephen was the first martyr of the infant Christian Church, in Jerusalem. His story is told in Acts chapters 6 and 7. He was one of the seven deacons who were appointed by the Apostles to distribute alms, and he was a gifted preacher. He was stoned for blasphemy and during his execution, had a vision of Jesus at the right hand of God in Heaven. It was at the feet of Saul, that those who were stoning Stephen, laid their robes. Saul (later St Paul) witnessed and consented to, Stephen’s death. His day is 26 December. He is often portrayed holding the martyr’s palm, and stones surround him.
St Andrew (please see Listening Room window for details).Designer: FMB
St James the Great died 44 AD Designed by WM
James the son of Zebedee and brother of John, was a fisherman, and like his brother was nick-named one of the ‘sons of thunder’. He witnessed the Transfiguration, and Jesus’ Agony in Gethsemane. He was the first of the apostles to die, being put to the sword at Jerusalem, under Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:2). His day is 25 July.
St James the Less 1st Century Designer: EBJ
James was the son of Alphaeus, but not a great deal is known about him. He may have been the James whose mother stood by the cross, and is thought by some to have been the James known as ‘the brother of the Lord’. He is often called the first Bishop of Jerusalem. Legend tells that he was killed with a fuller’s club, after being sentenced to stoning by the Sanhedrin. His name is often paired with St Philip. His day is 1 May.
In these two windows, the figure of Jesus on earth and in heaven, is worshipped by apostles and angels. Scenes from the life and ministry of Jesus are found in the lower, small panels of the left hand window, showing Jesus as teacher, healer and comforter. The south west window portrays the resurrection and its significance.
The Mary Robertson Memorial window
(wife of John Robertson, Vicar in 1896)
Designer not known, possibly 1898
The top lights show angels and two scrolls. The music and words are a setting of ‘For all the saints, who from their labours rest…’ The tune is by a local composer. In the left hand light we see John the Baptist and another kneeling saint, John the Evangelist. ‘Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world’ are words spoken by John the Baptist of Jesus. ‘In him was life, and the life was the light of men’ are words written by St John in John chapter 1. The small panels below show Jesus in his earthly ministry. The right hand light shows Mary Magdalene kneeling and Mary the Mother of Jesus standing: ‘My soul doth magnify the Lord’. The small right hand panel shows the sisters Mary and Martha with Jesus.
The Richard Fawcett Memorial window
Designer not known, possibly 1898
Richard Fawcett the elder died in 1845 and his son Richard died in 1855. The top lights show four angels and the words ‘Since by man came death, by man came also the Resurrection of the dead.’ The left hand light shows Saint Paul and an angel. ‘If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, them also that sleep in Jesus, will God bring with him.’ The central light shows Jesus crowned and carrying an orb. The small panel below has the text ‘I am he that liveth, and behold, I am alive for evermore.’ The right hand panel shows Saint Peter and an angel with the text, ‘Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy, hath begotten us again, unto a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.’ The small panel below shows Peter and John at the tomb.
Appendix 1: BRADFORD HERITAGE
Bradford, possibly known in Saxon times as ‘broad ford’, has grown up around a crossing place which quickly became a meeting place and a market. For over 1,300 years, it has welcomed and absorbed visitors from many backgrounds in search of work or refuge. Bradford dale, an industrial ‘bowl’ surrounded by green hills and open moors, is now a melting pot of people, gifts and cultures, who together are seeking to work out new vision and energy for the city and district. Throughout the centuries, this hillside near the ford has been a holy place of worship and pilgrimage. The church has been rebuilt three times by populations impoverished by battle and disease. It is the oldest and most notable example of Bradford’s determination to overcome hardship and build for the future. Local history is enshrined here. Upon the homely, uneven stones of the walls, there are many memorials to families and individuals whose names have become familiar street names in Bradford. The Cathedral stands at the heart of Bradford and has watched over the growth of the city from small village, to thriving market town, and industrial city where people of faith have made significant contribution to the life of Bradford.
The foursquare Tudor tower is a landmark symbolising the stronghold found by the people of Bradford in their God, not least during the Civil War, when this church was a battleground during the Siege of Bradford. Now the Cathedral is an oasis of peace in the busy city centre, and is a magnet which draws people into its welcoming space. The beautiful building has its own special ministry to visitors, who come to look round, or to seek help, or education, or to enjoy music and the arts, in addition to a varied programme of services. Many of these reflect the life of the city in its special interests and topical issues. Bradford Cathedral stands with its feet firmly in the city centre. It is the spiritual home of a large and lively ‘family’, which has long sought to listen to the city, identifying and responding to its needs. Day by day, through our work and in our liturgy, we tell the story of the God who finds us and loves us. The people of today’s parish are the workers who flood in and out of the city on the rush hour tides. In the heart of the city, the whispers of God are still heard. In this place of meeting and dialogue, worship and compassion, living faith is worked out, as together with many Bradfordians we work towards the regeneration of our city.
Appendix 2: A brief history of the West Yorkshire Regiment
(The Prince of Wales's Own)
Raised in 1685, the Regiment first saw active service in Flanders in 1693. It then served in Ireland and Scotland before going to Gibraltar in 1727 for a 15 year stay. The Regiment returned to Scotland in 1745 until Culloden and returned to Gibraltar in 1751 for another 8 years. In 1759, when stationed at Windsor, it was granted royal permission to wear the White Horse of Hanover. 1776 saw the Regiment in America. This was followed by duty as Marines and then in Jamaica. In 1793, at the Battle of Famars, the Regiment "stole" the march "Ca Ira" from its French adversaries. After this war against the French, the regiment returned home in 1803 and raised a 2nd Battalion, which went to the Peninsular, while the 1st Battalion went to India, and later, the short-lived 3rd Battalion which formed part of Wellington's Army. After several successful actions in India, the 1st Battalion was, on returning home in 1831, granted the badge of the Royal Tiger, superscribed "India". After service in the West Indies, Canada and Malta, the Regiment went to the Crimea in 1855 and took part in the capture of Sevastopol. In 1858 the 2nd Battalion was re-formed and sent to New Zealand. In 1876, the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, presented new Colours to the 1st Battalion at Lucknow and conferred on the Regiment the title "The Prince of Wales's Own" and in 1881 the 14th was given the title "The West Yorkshire Regiment". In 1899 the 2nd Battalion went to the South African War where two V.C.'s were awarded.
The 1st Battalion was part of the original Expeditionary Force at the outbreak of the First World War, rapidly followed by the 2nd. The Regiment grew to 37 battalions, including Territorials, of which 24 saw action overseas and received many decorations. Among these was the French Croix de Guerre, awarded to the 8th (Leeds Rifles) Battalion for gallantry in the capture of Bligny Ridge. The Roll of Honour, including over 13,000 names, may be seen in the Regimental Chapel in York Minster. With a return to peace in 1918, the Regiment was reduced to two Regular and four Territorial Battalions. The 1st Battalion spent much of the Second World War in Burma, while the 2nd Battalion served in Egypt, Cyprus and Tobruk before going to India and Burma, finally returning to UK in 1948 when it amalgamated with the 1st. This Battalion took part in the Suez operation in 1956 and was then stationed in Dover until amalgamation in 1958.